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Saturday, April 28, 2012

Changing The Brain to Enhance Well-Being, Happiness

From www.PsychCentral.com News

By Rick Nauert, Ph.D., Senior News Editor
Reviewed by John M. Grohol, Psy.D. on April 19, 2012

A provocative new paper suggests people can take advantage of the brain’s neuroplasticity to train it to be more empathetic, appreciative and compassionate.

Practices like physical exercise, certain forms of psychological counseling and meditation can all change brains for the better, according to the authors of an online review in Nature Neuroscience. Moreover, given advances in neuroscience, these changes can now be measured. The study reflects a major transition in the focus of neuroscience from disease to well-being, said the study’s lead author Dr. Richard Davidson, professor of psychology at University of Wisconsin-Madison.

The brain is constantly changing in response to environmental factors, he said, and the article “reflects one of the first efforts to apply this conceptual framework to techniques to enhance qualities that we have not thought of as skills, like well-being.

“Modern neuroscience research leads to the inevitable conclusion that we can actually enhance well-being by training that induces neuroplastic changes in the brain.”

“Neuroplastic” changes affect the number, function and interconnections of cells in the brain, usually due to external factors.

Although the positive practices reviewed in the article were not designed using the tools and theories of modern neuroscience, “these are practices which cultivate new connections in the brain and enhance the function of neural networks that support aspects of pro-social behavior, including empathy, altruism, kindness,” said Davidson.

The review, co-written with Dr. Bruce McEwen of Rockefeller University, begins by considering how social stressors can harm the brain. As an example, the massive neglect of children in orphanages in Romania did not just have psychological impacts; it created measurable changes in their brains, Davidson said.

“Such studies provide an important foundation for understanding the opposite effects of interventions designed to promote well-being.”

Davidson said his work has been shaped by his association with the Dalai Lama, who asked him in the 1990s, “Why can’t we use the same rigorous tools of neuroscience to investigate kindness, compassion and well-being?”

Davidson has explored the neurological benefits of meditation and said “meditation is one of many different techniques, and not necessarily the best for all people.

“Cognitive therapy, developed in modern psychology, is one of most empirically validated treatments for depression and counteracting the effects of stress.”

Overall, he said, the goal is “to use what we know about the brain to fine-tune interventions that will improve well-being, kindness, altruism. Perhaps we can develop more targeted, focused interventions that take advantage of the mechanisms of neuroplasticity to induce specific changes in specific brain circuits.”

Brains change all the time, Davidson emphasized. “You cannot learn or retain information without a change in the brain. We all know implicitly that in order to develop expertise in any complex domain, to become an accomplished musician or athlete, requires practice, and that causes new connections to form in the brain. In extreme cases, specific parts of the brain enlarge or contract in response to our experience.”

Davidson believes brain training will expand in a similar fashion as has occurred for physical exercise.

“If you go back to the 1950s, the majority of middle-class citizens in Western countries did not regularly engage in physical exercise. It was because of scientific research that established the importance of physical exercise in promoting health and well-being that more people now engage in regular physical exercise. I think mental exercise will be regarded in a similar way 20 years from now.

“Rather than think of the brain as a static organ, or one that just degenerates with age, it’s better understood as an organ that is constantly reshaping itself, is being continuously influenced, wittingly or not, by the forces around us,” said Davidson.

“We can take responsibility for our own brains. They are not pawns to external influences; we can be more proactive in shaping the positive influences on the brain.”

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